Meditation, Cosmic Aspect, and Devotion
Mind which has been able to get rid of the strong hold of desires and has started becoming pure & calm, needs to be directed towards God/Self; for this meditation is essential. Hence after explaining Karma-Yoga and clearing Arjuna's doubts regarding Karma-Sannyasa, Sri Krishna now starts elaborating on meditation. Without proper Karma-Yoga, mind does not become calm enough to practice true and deep meditation; and without meditation, mere Karma-Yoga can't take spiritual aspirant to deeper Consciousness levels. Sri Krishna had introduced meditation briefly at the end of fifth chapter, and now at the beginning of sixth chapter, He praises karmayogi as संन्यासी sannyasi (monk) and yogi. Though externally a karmayogi may not be a sannyasi i.e. he/she may not have renounced home and hearth (renunciation of fire निरग्नि niragni) or donned ochre clothes, but he/she has renounced all desires and attachments to the results for his/her actions; similarly externally a karmayogi may not appear to be a yogi i.e. he/she may not be sitting still in meditation most of the time (without action अक्रिय akriya), but like a yogi's mind, his/her mind is balanced and contended being not disturbed by hankering for results and is calmly discharging the required duties of life.
@ In Vedic times, a house-holder had to daily perform fire-sacrifice (यज्ञ: yajna) like अग्निहोत्र agnihotra etc.; for this he had a permanent fire established in his home called गार्ह्यपत्न्याग्नि garhapatyaagni and he had to draw fire from this garhapatyaagni and start the fire for other yajnas. The fire which was drawn from garhapatyaagni was called आहवनीयाग्नि aahavaniyaagni and the yajna fire was called दक्षिणाग्नि dakshinaagni or अन्वाहार्यपचनग्नि anvaharyapachanagni. One who had taken monastic vows and renounced family life had to naturally give up these home-lit fires and thus was referred as niragni (literally - one without fire).
Karma-Yoga is the means to reach the level of meditation; one who has properly performed Karma-yoga and has developed the capacity to practice deeper meditation, has transcended his/her restless (rajas) nature. And hence his/her tendency would be to withdraw himself/herself from external pull of activity. When such an aspirant rises above the plane of senses/karma by giving up all सङ्कल्प sankalpas (mental resolutions) - the cause for desires and actions - related to this or any other world, he/she is called योगारूढ Yogarudha (one who is established in Yoga or Meditation).
@ सङ्कल्प sankalpa - to be attracted
towards the objects of the world is itself sankalpa (mental resolution towards something); this in turn gives rise for
desire towards the object and then one does action to acquire it.
Next, Sri Krishna explains a profound psychological truth, which is applicable to all human beings as well as all societies at all times; He says, 'if we don't discipline our body-mind complex then we are our own enemy and if we properly discipline our body-mind-complex then we are our own friend. Do not degrade yourself but rather raise yourself by developing maturity of the psyche.' Swami Vivekananda expresses this as:
'It is a tremendous error to feel helpless. Do not seek help from anyone. We are our own help. If we cannot help ourselves, there is none to help us. ..."Thou thyself art thy only friend, thou thyself thy only enemy. There is no other enemy but this self of mine, no other friend by myself." This is the last and greatest lesson, and Oh, what a time it takes to learn it! We seem to get hold of it, and the next moment the old wave comes. The backbone breaks. We weaken and again grasp for that superstition and help. Just think of that huge mass of misery, and all caused by this false idea of going to seek for help!'
The spiritual aspirant who has established himself/herself in Yoga (Yogarudha) has complete control over his/her body-mind-complex,
is of joyous mind (due to bliss of the Self manifested in mind), is unperturbed in pleasure or pain, heat or cold, and sees One God
in all. Thus he/she develops समबुद्धि samabuddhi (equanimity of mind) in all
the following types of human relationships:
The details of asanas and postures here are owing to the topic under discussion namely path of meditation (Raja-Yoga); but Jnana-margis (followers of Knowledge path) have their own definition of asanas, postures etc. Sri Ramana Maharshi - the great Jnani of last century - explains this point as:
D.: What are asanas (postures or seats)? Are they necessary?
Vedantins do not deride meditation (which involves duality of meditator and object of meditation) but does not give it ultimate position; they stress Self-Knowledge (in which all duality vanishes). Sri Ramana Maharshi's answer to following question, illustrates the point:
D.: What is the difference between meditation and enquiry into the Self?
From Jnana-Marga point of view and as Sri Ramana Maharshi says, 'Meditation is your true nature'; so meditation should be
a full time job for an aspirant and not some technique to be practiced at particular times!
Ø अनुग्रहशक्ति संबलित परमेश्वर - गुरु
(AnugrahaShakti Sambalit Parameshwar - Guru) God with Favouring/Blessing Power is called Guru
The aspirant, who realizes the Self, sees the Self in all beings and all beings in Self; God being no different from Self, such a soul
can be said to see God everywhere. Thus he/she becomes समदर्शी samadarshi (same or
unperturbed state of mind with regard to all i.e. sense of equality). Though such a being can be outwardly seen to act and behave
like any other ordinary person, his/her internal awareness is radically different from others because he/she experiences God in and
The description of highest state of Reality and the efforts required to attain it, may trigger different reactions in different minds
like shock, awe, fear, helplessness, confusion, wrong understanding, etc.; or some minds may understand and put in emotional efforts
but not sincere, rational, prolonged efforts; very few would understand rightly, introspect and self-analyze thoroughly, and make
efforts earnestly. Arjuna, who represents spiritual aspirant's mind, reacted by asking, 'I don't see how this state of equanimity of
mind that you mention, can be achieved. The mind by nature is fickle, stubborn, and turbulent; controlling it is as difficult as to
control wind!' Now, Sri Krishna kindly acknowledges Arjuna's concern and says, 'Without doubt, the mind is difficult to control; but
it can be done with detachment and practice. For uncontrolled mind, yoga is extremely difficult, but for an aspirant who has controlled
mind by constant spiritual practice, it is achievable.'
@ तात - Arjuna is referred as तात because disciple is same as son; and son is referred as तात - being father in another form (father is तात - तनोति आत्मानं पुत्ररूपेण one who extends oneself as son)
'After taking such a birth here on earth, that spiritual aspirant, impelled by his/her past samskaras, continues his/her spiritual practice in this new body. The force of previous practice exerts its pull, and makes him/her perform further spiritual effort; such an aspirant transcends the sphere of शब्द-ब्रह्म shabda-brahman (phenomenal jurisdiction of Veda/Scriptures), frees mind of all impurities/sins, and reaches the blessed, supreme state of Self-Realisation.' Spiritual aspirants should note that the mental impressions gathered (samskaras) due to spiritual practice are related to the real entity - Self/God, while all other worldly samskaras are related to transient phenomena; and hence even if for some time (may be few births!) worldly samskaras dominate the mind, in the end spiritual samskaras are bound to spring up and take the aspirant to the goal! This is a great message and assurance from Lord Sri Krishna to all spiritual aspirants (as also in Gita II.40). After this great assurance, Sri Krishna asks Arjuna - and all of us - to be a yogi with heart fixed on Him(God); being such a yogi of comprehensive & dynamic spirituality is greater than to be just an ordinary 'performer of scriptural actions' (कर्मी karmi) or mere intellectual person (शास्त्र-पण्डित ज्ञानी shastra-pandit jnani) or performer of some limited austerities (तपस्वी tapasvi).
@ ज्ञानी 'Jnani' word used above (verse 6.46), can
Many commentators divide the chapters of Bhagawad-Gita into three sets of six chapters each and associate them with the three words of the famous Vedic dictum 'Thou Art That'; first six chapters are related to त्वम् पदार्थ शोधन tvam padartha shodhan i.e. they focus on the enquiry into the nature of 'Thou', the individual aspect of Self. Next six chapters focus on 'That', the cosmic aspect of Self, and hence devotion (of 'part' towards 'whole') is their main theme. At the end of sixth chapter, Sri Krishna points to भक्तियोग Bhaktiyoga (path of devotion) and from first verse of seventh chapter, He starts elaborating it.
God in Qualified and Absolute Aspect
Sri Krishna says, 'Listen the way through which you will understand Me (God with all divine qualities) thoroughly (with qualities and without qualities) and without any doubt. You should practice yoga depending entirely on Me and fixing your heart loving on Me. I will tell you completely both knowledge (परोक्ष-ज्ञान parokshna jnana) as well as realisation of Truth/Reality (अपरोक्ष-ज्ञान aparoksha jnana i.e vijnana), knowing which nothing else remains to be known.'
@ ज्ञान Jnana can be प्रत्यक्ष pratyaksha (sense-knowledge; omnipresence of God not conceivable), परोक्ष paroksha (scriptural knowledge; faith in God can be developed), or अपरोक्ष aparoksha (intimate-knowledge or realisation of 'I Am God')
Sri Krishna also mentions the rarity of spiritual aspirants among humans and extremely difficult nature of Self-Realization; He says, 'rare is an individual among thousands of humans, who tries to realize the Self, and among those who are trying, rare indeed is one who is able to know Me (Self/God) truly.' In vast humanity, we see very few people try to live their lives virtuously, and among those who live virtuously, very few are detached from sense-plane and are becoming introspective. So even the percentage of spiritual aspirants is minuscule, further, spiritual journey being 'walk on razor's edge', extremely rare is any soul, among struggling spiritual aspirants, who reaches perfectly to the goal of Self-Realization!
Sri Krishna then begins explaining His (God/Self) dual nature which constitutes 'totality of Reality'. This dual nature of Reality is the material and efficient cause of the universe, in which, the material cause gives rise to evolution of structures, and the efficient cause (Pure Consciousness) is then progressively manifested through these structures. Here in Gita it is termed as lower Nature (अपरा-प्रकृति apara Prakriti) and higher Nature (परा-प्रकृति para Prakriti) respectively; it is 'manifestations of Pure Consciousness' (five elements of Nature, mind, intellect, and ego) and 'Pure Consciousness' (intelligence, जीवभूता jivabhuta). Sri Ramakrishna has given a beautiful analogy for this dual nature of Reality:
'Suppose you have separated the shell, flesh, and seeds of a bel-fruit and someone asks you the weight of the fruit. Will you leave aside the shell and the seeds, and weigh only the flesh? Not at all. To know the real weight of the fruit, you must weigh the whole of it - the shell, the flesh, and the seeds. Only then can you tell its real weight. The shell may be likened to the universe, and the seeds to living beings. While one is engaged in discrimination one says to oneself that the universe and the living beings are non-Self and unsubstantial. At that time one thinks of the flesh alone as the substance, and the shell and seeds as unsubstantial. But after discrimination is over, one feels that all three parts of the fruit together form a unity. Then one further realizes that the stuff that has produced the flesh of the fruit has also produced the shell and seeds. To know the real nature of the bel-fruit one must know all three.'
The lower Nature (apara Prakriti) is sustained and controlled by the higher Nature (para Prakriti) because higher nature is 'inner' to lower nature and is conscious, not dull.
@ In Gita, many terms from Samkhya Philosophy are used in sixth and seventh chapters, so it is important to remember that though Vedanta accepts some terminology and process of Samkhya (especially related to the explanation of universe), the points of difference between the two philosophies are: Samkhya accept प्रकृति/प्रधान Prakriti/Pradhan as being independent from Purusha and hence Prakriti has कर्तृत्व kartritva ('doership') & पुरुष Purusha has भोक्तृत्व bhokrutva ('enjoyership'); also Purushas are many in number. Vedanta does not accept the independence of Prakriti/Pradhan; it regards Prakriti/Maya as mithya (illusory) and non-separate from Self; hence no kartritva in Maya and no bhokrutva in Self, kartritva and bhokrutva are superimposed on Self due to the limiting adjunct of Maya. Also, Self is One and not many according to Vedanta.
Sri Krishna while using the word 'I' refers to Supreme Reality and hence He says, 'these two Natures (para and apara) are the source of all beings; [and through them] I Am the origin and dissolution of entire universe. There is no other supreme cause to the world apart from Me; the entire universe is strung on Me like pearls on a thread.' All beings are like pearls and God is the common thread running through them! Adi Shankara, in his commentary on this verse, gives another example: God is like 'warp' (of 'warp & woof of cloth') and beings are like 'cloth made out of it'; Sri Jnaneshwar Maharaj also gives beautiful simile: 'pearls of gold' strung on the 'golden thread'! God is not only transcendent but also immanent; He/She is the intrinsic, causal, and essential characteristics of everything in the world. To illustrate the immanence of God, a few examples are mentioned here by Sri Krishna (more would be enumerated in tenth chapter): 'I am the taste & liquidity in liquids, brilliance in sun and moon, Omkara in Vedas, sound in space, manliness in man, pure fragrance (पुण्यो गन्ध: punyo gandhah) in earth, glow in fire, life in all beings, spirit of austerity in austere person, eternal seed of all beings, intelligence in intelligent people, power in powerful, 'strength devoid of sense-cravings and attachment (कामरागविवर्जितम् kaamraagvivarjitam)' in strong, 'desire not opposed to dharma' in all beings'.
Ø पुण्यो गन्ध: punyo gandhah -
undifferentiated/un-manifested sense of smell (अव्याकृत गन्ध:
avyaakrita gandhah), the subtle essence (तन्मात्रा tanmaatraa) of sense
of smell; this is ever pure and uncontaminated. The smell we perceive on gross level is contaminated due to our ignorance and our
mental qualities. This is true for all sense-perceptions like sight, taste, hearing etc. In Vedanta sense of smell is associated
with Earth as sense of hearing is associated with Sky, sense of taste with Water, sense of sight with Fire, and sense of touch with Air.
Sri Krishna says further, 'All mental states and objects, arising out of the three gunas (सत्व satwa,
रज: rajas, तम: tamas), are originating from Me; though they are in Me, I am not bound by them
rather they are controlled by Me. All beings are deluded by these three gunas and hence do not know Me - the Supreme
imperishable Reality transcendent to all gunas. This divine Maya of Mine - which is constituted of three gunas and
deludes entire world - is extremely difficult to understand or overcome; only those who take refuge in Me are able to cross it.'
We forget our infinite real nature, our real 'I'; thus we are deluded and bound by the three gunas, but our real 'I' (Self/God)
never gets deluded/contaminated by these gunas. Sri Ramakrishna gives a beautiful simile for this: 'There is poison in the
snake, but it doesn't harm the snake. It is poison to him who is bitten by the snake.' According to Vedanta, the appearance of
body-mind-world being an illusory manifestation of Self can't affect it's source i.e. Self, just as the pictures appearing on a screen
can't affect the screen. Our unwillingness to give up limited individuality is the cause of our bondage; Swami Vivekananda says,
'... we are immortal with regard to the whole; but the difficulty is, we desire so much to be immortal as parts of the whole. We
have seen that we are Infinite, and that that is our real individuality. But we want so much to make these little souls individual.'
Ø आर्त aarta devotee examples from scripture: kings jailed
by Jarasandha and Draupadi during Vastraharana in Mahabharata
Sri Krishna's exposition about Maya, its power to delude, and way out of Maya, raises the question: then why do not all people surrender to Him and get freedom? Sri Krishna explains that people loose their intelligence due to the desires in their hearts; in order to fulfil those desires, they worship different deities and perform actions according to their beliefs propelled by faith in those deities; further Sri Krishna adds: I do not disturb their faith, instead, make that faith firm and grant their prayers through those deity-forms. The result obtained by these people is obviously limited and temporary; but real devotees of Lord, worshipping only Him, attain to ever-lasting Peace and Bliss. Thus first the evil minded people were described, then devotees of different kinds were described, and lastly these other people - who worship different deities and are midway between 'evil-minded-types' and 'devotee-types' - were described. People under delusion of Maya lack proper discriminative intellect, and hence remain unaware of the infinite, unchanging, un-manifested nature of the Self/God; they consider Him as being manifested, limited and changeful. All beings are always subjected to the duality arising out of desire (इच्छा iccha) and hatred (द्वेष dwesha); and when mind is subjected to the two emotions, right knowledge - even regarding external objects - is difficult to arise, what to speak of Self-knowledge.
ØFollowing four types of superimpositions occur due to desire and hatred:
Those who have purified their minds by spiritual practice and steady, firm worship of God, overcome these two emotions, and realise the supreme Self (ब्रह्म Brahman), even at the time of death; thus they cross over old-age and death by knowing completely the nature of body-mind-complex (अध्यात्म adhyaatma), work (कर्म karma), phenomenal world (अधिभूत adhibhoota), subtle elements (अधिदैव adhidaiva), and deity in the body (अधियज्ञ adhiyajna). Thus ends the seventh chapter with potential for Arjuna to ask questions related to terms used by Sri Krishna in last two verses.
Imperishable Reality and Transmigration of souls
At the beginning of eighth chapter Arjuna asks, 'What is ब्रह्म Brahman? What is अध्यात्म
adhyaatma? What is कर्म karma? What is meant by अधिभूत
adhibhoota and अधिदैव adhidaiva? Who is in this body is अधियज्ञ
adhiyajna and how? And how does a yogi, whose mind is well-controlled, know You (supreme Self) at the time of death?'
Brahman - The Imperishable Supreme Reality (Self) which never changes despite all changeful universe
appearing and disappearing in It.
Sri Krishna further says that the thought or consciousness at the moment of death decides the future birth. Swami Vivekananda
explains this as, 'A ball is here, and each one of us takes a mallet in his hands and strikes the ball from all sides; the ball goes
from point to point in the room, and when it reaches the door it flies out. What does it carry out with it? The resultant of all
these blows. That will give it its direction. So, what directs the soul when the body dies? The resultant, the sum total of all the
works it has done, of the thoughts it has thought.' This being the fact, Sri Krishna advices Arjuna to always think of Him i.e.
God and fight (i.e. perform the designated duty). Thus by constant practice of devoting mind to God alone and nothing else, one
attains identity with the Supreme Lord.
'All the forms which we are seeing now have been manifested again and again, and the world in which we live has been here many
times before. I have been here and talked to you many times before. You will know that it must be so, and the very words that you
have been listening to now, you have heard many times before. And many times more it will be the same. Souls were never different,
the bodies have been constantly dissolving and recurring. Secondly, these things periodically occur. Suppose here are three or
four dice, and when we throw them, one come up five, another four, another three, and another two. If you keep on throwing,
there must come times when those very same numbers will recur. Go on throwing, and no matter how long may be the interval, those
numbers must come again. It cannot be asserted in how many throws they will come again; this is the law of chance. So with souls
and their associations. However distant may be the periods, the same combinations and dissolutions will happen again and again.
The same birth, eating and drinking, and then death, come round again and again. Some never find anything higher than the enjoyments
of the world, but those who want to soar higher find that these enjoyments are never final, are only by the way.
Souls attaining Moksha (Liberation), are freed from this repetitive cycle but all other souls re-emerge, in next cosmic cycle, out of avyakta, during Brahma's day and continue their journey. Mere dissolution into avyakta at the time of pralaya (cosmic dissolution during Brahma's night) does not constitute Liberation (मोक्ष Moksha), otherwise scriptures - which describe the means for Liberation - would be proved futile and it would also mean Liberation for souls which still have 'karma-baggage' in them! Another point to note is that during re-emergence, new souls are not thrown up, since that would mean creation of new soul without any karma behind it - which is illogical; those same souls which have gone into dissolution with 'karma-baggage' re-emerge again. For a true spiritual aspirant, this understanding of real nature of samsara should create 'dispassion for transmigration' (वैराग्य vairagya) and also this makes it clear that the only freedom worth the name is in our real 'infinite Pure Consciousness' nature and the apparent freedom experienced at form level is illusory.
@सहस्रयुगपर्यन्तम् ... sahasrayugaparyantam ... - 360 human years make one year of gods and 12000 years of gods (i.e. 12000*360=4320000 human years) make one chaturyugi (one cycle of four yugas: satya, treta, dwapar, kali, and their intermediate periods). Thousand such chaturyugis make one day of Brahma during which the universe is manifested out of 'un-manifested Self' (अव्यक्त avyakta); during night of Brahma, which is again thousand chaturyugis, the universe goes back into avyakta. In ancient times, Indian astrology had developed this mind-boggling time-scale and they still maintain the meticulous yearly count of various celestial positions!
There is another avyakta (un-manifested) which is greater than the avyakta mentioned above (the one from which cosmic cycle emerges and into which it dissolves); this superior avyakta is the imperishable (अक्षर akshara) Supreme Reality mentioned earlier which is the undivided Pure Consciousness-Bliss (Brahman), transcendent to body-mind-senses. The entire causal, subtle, and gross phenomenon is an appearance 'within' this Supreme Reality which pervades everywhere. Sri Krishna says that this reality is My supreme abode and one who realises his/her real nature, by means of steady devotion, as this Supreme Reality, never again gets deluded by the transitory cycle of births and deaths. Next Sri Krishna talks about the two eternal paths through which souls travel after leaving the body. First is उत्तरायण uttarayan (northern path; path bright with light of consciousness) which leads soul to Brahmaloka - aided by deities representing fire, day, bright fortnight, and six months of northern sojourn of Sun - from which there is no return back to earth and the second path is दक्षिणायन dakshinayan (southern path; path not so bright due to lack of light of consciousness) which leads soul to spheres that are lower than Brahmaloka - aided by deities representing smoke, night, dark fortnight, and six months of southern sojourn of Sun - and from which there is return back to earth. Knowing this fact, true yogis are not deluded; by knowing the answers to the doubts raised at the beginning of this chapter namely what is adhyaatma, karma, adhibhoota, adhidaiva etc. they try to realize the Supreme, here on earth itself and become free from all types of migration. They thus transcend all the possible merits that can be acquired by study of scriptures, by performing great austerities, by performing appropriate charity etc. Sri Krishna encourages Arjuna - and to all of us - to be always established in yoga.
Devotion and Cosmic Aspect
At the beginning of ninth chapter Sri Krishna says, 'since you are free from jealousy, I am now going to tell you about the profoundest
of spiritual truth/knowledge (jnana) and its experience/realisation (vijnana); this realisation will free you from the
evil of transmigration. This spiritual truth is:
@Srimad Bhagavata mentions नवविध भक्ति
navvidha bhakti (nine types of devotion):
Spiritual seekers worship God/Truth according to their temperament and capacity; some try to become one with Self by Knowledge, others worship by seeing manifested universe as form of God, still others follow diverse methods of Yoga, Karma, Prana etc. God can be worshiped as anything and in anything since everything is manifestation of God; this is the great principle of Hinduism (Vedanta) which has infused in Indian society, for thousands of years, tremendous tolerance and acceptance of all divergent views. Sri Krishna elaborates this as 'I am the various types of Vedic and other sacrificial fires, I am the oblation into those fires, I am the mantras uttered during those fire ceremonies, I am the Karma of the sacrificial fire, I am also the fire lit in those sacrificial fires; I am father, mother, grandfather of the world, I am sustainer and protector of the world, I am purity, knowledge itself, I am all the Vedas, I am the result of all actions and movement of all souls, I am the Lord of all, I am the witness of all, I am the benefactor of all, I am the origination as well as dissolution of all, I am the storehouse of everything, I am the indestructible seed of the universe, I shine as Sun and come down as rain, I am the heavenly life as well as earthly death-ridden existence, I am being as well as non-being, manifest as well as un-manifest, good as well as evil.' Anybody sincerely worshiping God in any form, through any method will ultimately reach God. Tremendous religious freedom obtained in India for centurie is owing to this vision; Swami Vivekananda observes:
'… India is the only country where there never has been a religious persecution, where never was any man disturbed for his religious faith. Theists or atheists, monists, dualists, monotheists are there and always live unmolested. Materialists were allowed to preach from the steps of Brahminical temples, against the gods, and against God Himself; they went preaching all over the land that the idea of God was a mere superstition, and that gods, and Vedas, and religion were simply superstitions invented by the priests for their own benefit, and they were allowed to do this unmolested. … … So on, endless examples there are.'
Those who are full of desires for pleasures, perform noble deeds, ritual sacrifices etc. with an eye on heaven; after death they go to the heaven and enjoy the pleasures there till their stock of पुण्य punya (merit) is exhausted, then they return back to earth. Their transmigration cycle continues unbroken! Sri Krishna points out these types to contrast them with real devotees who are free of desires and seek only Lord and not pleasures. Such true devotees, being immersed in thought of divine, are entirely dependent on Lord for everything including bodily needs of food, clothes, shelter etc.; for such devotees Sri Krishna gives a great assurance here: I see that they get what is required and also protect what they have received i.e. their burden - worldly as well as spiritual - is entirely on Me! He further adds that those who - through their ignorance of My infinite nature - worship other deities & divinities with faith, are also worshipping Me only, though ignorantly; and hence they get limited result (i.e. transmigration) as per their limited knowledge and capacity. Those who worship particular deities attain to that deity; those who worship ancestors attain to the sphere of ancestors etc. But pure devotees of Lord attain to Lord Himself; and worshipping Lord without expecting any result does not require elaborate procedures and rituals, it can be done in most simple manner. Lord is interested in devotee's consciousness/state of mind and not in external formalities. Hence, Sri Krishna says, 'Arjuna, offer every action, every austerity, every sacrifice, every charitable action, everything eaten etc. to Me. Thus you will be free from good and bad results of actions and attain to Me.' Lord is equally available for all but those who purify their hearts can feel Him in themselves as well as everywhere; those whose hearts remain immersed in desires and sense-pleasures can not feel God owing to their own ignorance. If any being worships God with love and devotion then however evil or ignorant he/she may have been in past, he/she soon overcomes the obstacles and becomes pure and awakened. Hence Sri Krishna says, 'Arjuna, proclaim boldly that those who take refuge in Me are never destroyed. Having obtained this rare human birth and seeing the transitory, painful nature of existence, worship Me with full devotion and total surrender. One who thus devotes whole mind to Me and surrenders to Me completely, attains the supreme state of merging with Me.'
From seventh chapter onwards, Sri Krishna is explaining the supreme Self from the cosmic perspective and in first six chapters It was explained with reference to individual perspective. Now in tenth chapter, the important manifested details of the Supreme Self are enumerated in order to help devotee fix his/her mind on God, in eleventh chapter the cosmic form of Lord is revealed to Arjuna, and finally in twelfth chapter, the path of devotion and characteristics of great devotee are enumerated. Thus the second six chapters of Gita expound the 'That' aspect of 'Thou Art That'. The descriptive details of tenth and eleventh chapters are not noted down here, interested readers are encouraged to go through them fully with the help of various books on Gita. We present the notes on twelfth chapter here.
more coming soon....stay tuned!